Tsunami Detection and the New Theory on Deep-Ocean Sound Waves
Acoustic-gravity waves are very long sound waves that cut through the deep ocean at the speed of sound. These lightning-quick currents can sweep up water, nutrients, salts, and any other particles in their wake, at any water depth. They are typically triggered by violent events in the ocean, including underwater earthquakes, explosions, landslides, and even meteorites, and they carry information about these events around the world in a matter of minutes.
Researchers at MIT have now identified a less dramatic though far more pervasive source of acoustic-gravity waves: surface ocean waves, such as those that can be seen from a beach or the deck of a boat. These waves, known as surface-gravity waves, do not travel nearly as fast, far, or deep as acoustic-gravity waves, yet under the right conditions, they can generate the powerful, fast-moving, and low-frequency sound waves.
The researchers have developed a general theory that connects gravity waves and acoustic waves. They found that when two surface-gravity waves, heading toward each other, are oscillating at a similar but not identical frequency, their interaction can release up to 95 percent of their initial energy in the form of an acoustic wave, which in turn carries this energy and travels much faster and deeper.
This interaction may occur anywhere in the ocean, in particular in regions where surface-gravity waves interact as they reflect from continental shelf breaks, where the deep-sea suddenly faces a much shallower shoreline.
Usama Kadri, a visiting assistant professor and a research affiliate in MIT’s Department of Mathematics, says the team’s results establish a concrete and detailed relationship between surface-gravity waves and acoustic-gravity waves, which, until now, scientists had suspected did not exist. Understanding this relationship, he says, allows researchers to describe how energy is exchanged between gravity and acoustic waves. He says this energy could be vital for many marine life forms, and it could play a role in water transport and the redistribution of carbon dioxide and heat to deeper waters, thereby sustaining a healthy marine environment.